Guang Yao

What do we do?
We study gene networks that control life and death decisions of cancer cells, and how they differ from normal cells.
What is the goal of our research?
We aim to better understand control mechanisms underlying various cell-fate decisions, and their connections to cancer development and aging, as well as to potential therapeutic strategies.
What is our approach?
We use an integrated approach of high-resolution single-cell experiments and computer modeling. Single-cell experiments can uncover dynamic and heterogeneous behaviors of cancer cells that often get buried in population-average analysis; modeling can help reveal emergent properties of gene networks that are hard to grasp intuitively. As demonstrated in our previous work, the combinatorial approach holds great promise in dissecting complex biological systems like cancer.
Publications

TJ Lee, G Yao, L You. (2011). Cell Cycle Transition: Principles of the Restriction Point. In Encyclopedia of Systems Biology (In press).
G Yao#, C Tan, M West, JR Nevins, L You. (2011). Origin of bistability underlying mammalian cell cycle entry. Mol. Systems Biol. 7:485. (#Corresponding author).
J Wong, G Yao, JR Nevins, L You. (2011). Using noisy gene expression mediated by engineered adenovirus to probe signaling dynamics in mammalian cells. Methods in Enzymology 497:221-37.
J Wong, G Yao, JR Nevins, L You. (2011). Viral-mediated noisy gene expression reveals biphasic E2f1 response to MYC. Mol. Cell 41: 275-285.
TJ Lee, G Yao, DC Bennett, JR Nevins, L You. (2010). Stochastic E2F Activation and Reconciliation of Phenomenological Cell-Cycle Models. PLoS Biol. 8(9): e1000488. 
S Mori, JT Chang, ER Andrechek, N Matsumura, T Baba, G Yao, JW Kim, M Gatza, S Murphy, JR Nevins. (2009). Anchorage-independent cell growth signature identifies tumors with metastatic potential. Oncogene 28: 2796-2805.
G Yao, TJ Lee, S Mori, JR Nevins#, L You#. (2008). A bistable Rb-E2F switch underlies the restriction point. Nature Cell Biol. 10: 476-482. (#Co-corresponding authors)
TJ Lee, G Yao, JR Nevins, L You. (2008). Sensing and integration of ERK and PI3K signals by Myc. PLoS Comp. Biol. 4(2): e1000013.
S Mori, R Rempel, JT Chang, G Yao, A Lagoo, JR Nevins. (2008). Utilization of pathway signatures to reveal distinct types of B-lymphoma in the Eµ-myc model and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Cancer Research 68: 8525-8534.
AH Bild, G Yao, JT Chang, Q Wang, A Potti, D Chasse, MB Joshi, D Harpole, JM Lancaster, A Berchuck, JA Olson Jr, JR Marks, HK Dressman, M West, JR Nevins. (2006). Oncogenic pathway signatures in human cancers as a guide to targeted therapies. Nature 439: 353-357.
M Delong, G Yao, Q Wang, A Dobra, EP Black, JT Chang, AH Bild, M West, JR Nevins, HK Dressman. (2005). DIG – a system for gene annotation and functional discovery. Bioinformatics 21: 2957-2959.
A Dobra, C Hans, B Jones, JR Nevins, G Yao, M West. (2004). Sparse graphical models for exploring gene expression data. Journal of Multivariate Analysis 90: 196-212.
G Yao, M Craven, N Drinkwater, CA Bradfield. (2004). Interaction networks in yeast define and enumerate the signaling steps of the vertebrate aryl hydrocarbon receptor. PLoS Biol. 2: 355-367.
G Yao, EB Harstad, CA Bradfield. (2003). The Ah receptor. In PAS Proteins: Regulators and Sensors of Development and Physiology (S. Crews, Ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, pp.149-182.
WK Chan, G Yao, YZ Gu, CA Bradfield. (1999). Cross-talk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor signaling pathways: Demonstration of competition and compensation. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 12115-12123.

			
Allometric Model Improves Scaling Of Left Atrial Size In Obese Population: The Use Of Body Weight Containing Variables Is Challenged. Source: Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
March 3rd, 2011 PMID: 21366688 Guang Yao
BACKGROUND:<br>Scaling left atrial (LA) size remains a challenge. An allometric model using body weight (BW) as scaling variable was recently proposed. We sought to examine the performance of this model in an obese population.<br><br>METHODS:<br>A total of 266 consecutive overweight (110) and obese subjects (class I, II, and III obese 81, 47, and 28, respectively) were studied; 46 normal subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) served as controls. LA dimension (LAD) was scaled to BW, body surface area (BSA), BMI and height, respectively, using both isometric and allometric models.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>There were no significant differences in age, gender, or height among the five groups. The prevalence of comorbid conditions, wall thickness, E/E' and LAD measures increased significantly with increasing weight group (P < 0.01-0.001). With the isometric model, LAD corrected by BW, BSA, and BMI significantly but paradoxically decreased across the groups (P < 0.05-0.001). With the allometric model, LAD overcorrection by BM, BSA, and BMI was improved, but remained in the class III obese group. In contrast, scaling LAD to height showed significant and graded increase across the five groups in accordance with the increases of BMI, E/E' and the prevalence of comorbid conditions.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>All isometric models that correct LAD by BW or BW containing variables underestimate LA size in overweight and obese groups. The allometric model using height provides more consistent results and should be preferred to models using BW or BW containing variables in scaling LAD in obese population.<br><br>
[Diagnosis And Treatment Of Mature Adrenal Teratoma]. Source: Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban = Journal Of Central South University. Medical Sciences
March 3rd, 2011 PMID: 21368430 Guang Yao
To discuss the pathology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of mature teratoma in adrenal gland. We reported 2 cases of mature adrenal teratoma and summarized their characters. No local recurrence or metastasis was found in the close follow-up of the 2 patients after the radical resection. Teratomas are rare germ tumors with potential malignant character which usually occur in the testes and ovaries. Adrenal teratomas are extremely rare and the diagnosis relies on radiological examinations. Early diagnosis and early surgical resection are the key in the treatment. Whether the postoperative chemotherapy is needed depends on the pathological result. Close lifelong follow-up is recommended and the prognosis is unclear at present.<br><br>
Diffuse Photon Remission Along Unique Spiral Paths On A Cylindrical Interface Is Modeled By Photon Remission Along A Straight Line On A Semi Infinite Interface. Source: Optics Letters
March 3rd, 2011 PMID: 21368938 Guang Yao
We demonstrate that, for a long cylindrical applicator that interfaces concavely or convexly with a scattering-dominant medium, a unique set of spiral-shaped directions exist on the tissue-applicator interface, along which the diffuse photon remission is essentially modeled by the photon remission along a straight line on a semi-infinite interface. This interesting phenomenon, which is validated in steady state in this work by finite-element and Monte Carlo methods, may be particularly useful for simplifying deeper-tissue sensing in endoscopic imaging geometry.<br><br>
Relationship Between Time To Positivity Of Blood Culture With Clinical Characteristics And Hospital Mortality In Patients With Escherichia Coli Bacteremia. Source: Chinese Medical Journal
March 2nd, 2011 PMID: 21362328 Guang Yao
BACKGROUND:<br>Previous studies indicated that the time to positivity (TTP) of blood culture is a parameter correlating with degree of the bacteremia and outcome in patients with bloodstream infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). The objective of this study was to further investigate the diagnostic and prognostic power of using TTP to predict E. coli bacteremia.<br><br>METHODS:<br>A retrospective cohort study at two university hospitals was conducted. We retrieved all the medical records of those with E. coli bloodstream infection according to the records generated by their microbiology departments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify clinical factors correlating with fast bacterial growth and significant prognostic factors for hospital mortality.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>Medical records of 353 episodes of E. coli bacteremia diagnosed between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 were retrieved in the investigation. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the TTP ≤ 7 hours group is associated with higher incidence of active malignancies (41.7% vs. 27.2%, P = 0.010), neutropenia (30% vs.14.3%, P = 0.007), primary bacteremia (55.0% vs. 33.4%, P = 0.002), and poorer outcome (hospital mortality 43.3% vs.11.9%, P = 0.000) than the TTP > 7 hours group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the significant predictors of hospital mortality, in rank order from high to low, were TTP (for TTP ≤ 7 hours, odds ratio (OR): 4.886; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.572 - 9.283; P = 0.000), neutropenia (OR: 2.800; 95%CI: 1.428 - 5.490; P = 0.003), comedication of steroids or immunosuppressive agents (OR: 2.670; 95%CI: 0.971 - 7.342; P = 0.057).<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>Incidence of malignancies, neutropenia and primary bacteremia correlates with fast bacterial growth in patients with E. coli bacteremia. The parameter of TTP has been identified as a variable of highest correlation to hospital mortality and therefore can be potentially utilized as a mortality prognostic marker.<br><br>
Synthesis And Antibacterial Activity Of 2, 3 Dehydro 3 O (3 Aryl E Prop 2 Enyl) 10, 11 Anhydroclarithromycin Derivatives. Source: The Journal Of Antibiotics
March 2nd, 2011 PMID: 21364596 Guang Yao
An allyl group was attached to 3-keto function of ketolides in the presence of allyl bromide and KOtBu. Consequently, the Heck reaction of the resulting 2, 3-dehydro-3-O-allyl-10, 11-anhydroclarithromycin derivatives, in the presence of palladium (II) acetate and tri(o-tolyl)phosphine, afforded a 3-O-(3-aryl-E-prop-2-enyl) sidechain, not the previously reported 3-O-(3-aryl-Z-prop-1-enyl) sidechain. The results suggested that some steric factors in β-hydrogen elimination might regulate the isomerization. The activity of 2, 3-dehydro-3-O-(3-aryl-E-prop-2-enyl)-10, 11-anhydroclarithromycin derivatives was low.<br><br>
Viral Mediated Noisy Gene Expression Reveals Biphasic E2f1 Response To Myc. Source: Molecular Cell
February 4th, 2011 PMID: 21292160 Guang Yao
Gene expression mediated by viral vectors is subject to cell-to-cell variability, which limits the accuracy of gene delivery. When coupled with single-cell measurements, however, such variability provides an efficient means to quantify signaling dynamics in mammalian cells. Here, we illustrate the utility of this approach by mapping the E2f1 response to MYC, serum stimulation, or both. Our results revealed an underappreciated mode of gene regulation: E2f1 expression first increased, then decreased as MYC input increased. This biphasic pattern was also reflected in other nodes of the network, including the miR-17-92 microRNA cluster and p19Arf. A mathematical model of the network successfully predicted modulation of the biphasic E2F response by serum and a CDK inhibitor. In addition to demonstrating how noise can be exploited to probe signaling dynamics, our results reveal how coordination of the MYC/RB/E2F pathway enables dynamic discrimination of aberrant and normal levels of growth stimulation.<br><br>
Photon Diffusion In A Homogeneous Medium Bounded Externally Or Internally By An Infinitely Long Circular Cylindrical Applicator. Ii. Quantitative Examinations Of The Steady State Theory. Source: Journal Of The Optical Society Of America. A, Optics, Image Science, And Vision
February 4th, 2011 PMID: 21293512 Guang Yao
This is Part II of the work that examines photon diffusion in a homogenous medium enclosed by a concave circular cylindrical applicator or enclosing a convex circular cylindrical applicator. Part I of this work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 648 (2010)] analytically examined the steady-state photon diffusion between a source and a detector for two specific cases: (1) the detector is placed only azimuthally with respect to the source, and (2) the detector is placed only longitudinally with respect to the source, in the infinitely long concave and convex applicator geometries. For the first case, it was predicted that the decay rate of photon fluence would become smaller in the concave geometry and greater in the convex geometry than that in the semi-infinite geometry for the same source-detector distance. For the second case, it was projected that the decay rate of photon fluence would be greater in the concave geometry and smaller in the convex geometry than that in the semi-infinite geometry for the same source-detector distance. This Part II of the work quantitatively examines these predictions from Part I through several approaches, including (a) the finite-element method, (b) the Monte Carlo simulation, and (c) experimental measurement. Despite that the quantitative examinations have to be conducted for finite cylinder applicators with large length-to-radius ratio to approximate the infinite-length condition modeled in Part I, the results obtained by these quantitative methods for two concave and three convex applicator dimensions validated the qualitative trend predicted by Part I and verified the quantitative accuracy of the analytic treatment of Part I in the diffusion regime of the measurement, at a given set of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the medium.<br><br>
[Anti Erosion Effect Of Hedgerows In Hillside Croplands Of Danjiangkou Based On The Evaluation With Water Erosion Prediction Project (Wepp) Model]. Source: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao = The Journal Of Applied Ecology / Zhongguo Sheng Tai Xue Xue Hui, Zhongguo Ke Xue Yuan Shenyang Ying Yong Sheng Tai Yan Jiu Suo Zhu Ban
January 25th, 2011 PMID: 21265164 Guang Yao
Based on the data of field experiments on the hillside croplands of Danjiangkou, Hubei Province of China, the input files of crop characters, management measures, slope gradient and length, and soil properties for running WEPP model (Hillslope version) were established. Combining with the local weather data, a simulation study with the model was made on the runoff and soil loss of the croplands protected by four kinds of hedgerows (Amorpha fruticosa, Lonicera japonica, Hemerocallis fulva, and Poa sphondylodes) in Danjiangkou area. The resulted showed that WEPP model could accurately simulate the anti-erosion effect of hedgerows in hillside farmlands in the study area. Using this model not only reduced test number, but also saved time and effort, being able to provide scientific basis for the popularization and application of hedgerows. Among the four hedgerows, Amorpha fruticosa had the best anti-erosion effect. According to the simulation, the optimal planting density of A. fruticosa hedgerows in the farmlands was 1 m x 15 m at slope gradient 5 degrees, 1 m x 10 m at slope gradient 15 degrees, and 1 m x 3 m at slope gradient 25 degrees.<br><br>
[Observation On Short And Long Term Effects Of Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy Treated With Abdominal Acupuncture Plus Long's Bone Setting Manipulation]. Source: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu = Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
January 19th, 2011 PMID: 21246846 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To compare the short and long-term therapeutic effects on cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) treated with simple Long's bone-setting manipulation, abdominal acupuncture and abdominal acupuncture plus Long's bone-setting manipulation.<br><br>METHODS:<br>One hundred and eighty cases of CSR were randomly allocated into abdominal acupuncture plus bone-setting group (combined therapy group), bone-setting group and abdominal acupuncture group, 60 cases in each group. In combined therapy group, the abdominal acupuncture and Long's bone-setting were applied in combination. Abdominal acupuncture was applied to Zhongwan (CV 12), Guanyuan (CV 4), Shiguan (KI 18), Shangqu (KI 17), etc. Long's manipulation, such as bone-setting in head-upward posture and bone-setting in head-lateral posture, was adopted. In bone-setting group and abdominal acupuncture group, Long's bone-setting manipulation and abdominal acupuncture were adopted simply and respectively. The clinical therapeutic effects were compared after 2 courses of treatment (short-term) and 1-month after treatment (long-term) among groups.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>The short and long-term curative and markedly effective rates in combined therapy group were 80.7% (46/57) and 68.4% (39/57) respectively, which were better than those of 63.64% (35/55), 30.9% (17/55) in bone-setting group and 58.9% (33/56), 50.0% (28/56) in abdominal acupuncture group, separately (all P < 0.05). Moreover, the long-term curative and markedly effective rate in abdominal acupuncture group was superior to that in bone-setting group (P < 0.05).<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>Abdominal acupuncture plus Long's bone-setting manipulation has significant efficacy of either short or long-term on CSR, which is superior to the efficacy of either simple abdominal acupuncture or Long's bone-setting manipulation and indicates superimposed effect. Hence, it is one of the better approaches in CSR treatment.<br><br>
Telomerase Inhibition Strategies By Si Rn As Against Either H Tr Or H Tert In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Source: Cancer Gene Therapy
January 14th, 2011 PMID: 21233858 Guang Yao
Human telomerase RNA (hTR) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) are considered effective molecular targets for current anticancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of targeting hTR and hTERT individually or in combination by recombinant adenovirus-delivered small interfering RNA (siRNA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) Tca8113. Further, we screened the optimal strategy for RNA interference. Our results show that these different recombinant adenoviruses specifically reduced the levels of hTR mRNA, hTERT mRNA, hTERT protein and telomerase activity in Tca8113 cells. Moreover, they successfully inhibited xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. The potency of their antitumor activities was ranked as follows: anti-hTR >anti-hTR+anti-hTERT >anti-hTERT. Therefore, we demonstrated that the siRNA-expressing recombinant adenoviruses were an effective anticancer tool for treatment of OSCC. Furthermore, the anticancer effect of solely targeting hTR was more direct and efficient, compared with the effect of targeting hTR and hTERT in combination, or hTERT exclusively. The mechanism of this anticancer effect in OSCC was not only related to the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell apoptosis, but might also involve the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.<br><br>
[Cutoff Scores Of The Ages And Stages Questionnaire Chinese For Screening Infants And Toddlers]. Source: Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. Chinese Journal Of Pediatrics
January 10th, 2011 PMID: 21215025 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To study the validity and accuracy of differing cutoff scores of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires-Chinese (ASQ-C) for screening infants and toddlers in comparison with the gold standard, Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II).<br><br>METHOD:<br>The 269 samples were enrolled from the normative children, aged 3 - 31 months, of the ASQ-C in Shanghai. The age-appropriate ASQ-Cs were completed by parents/caregivers and the BSIDIIwas administered by professionals. The cutoff scores of -2 standard deviation (s), -1.5 s, and -s for the ASQ-C were examined against BSID II with the cutoff scores set at -2 s as the standard of developmental delay, -s as the standard of suspected developmental delay and developmental delay respectively. Agreement between the classifications of the ASQ-C (i.e., typical, suspected, delay) was compared with the classification of the BSID II (typical, suspected, delay), sensitivity, specificity, Youden Index and area under ROC curve of ASQ-C were examined. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 13.0.<br><br>RESULT:<br>When the cutoff score for BSID II was -2 s, the -2 s cutoff score for ASQ-C exhibited the following properties: the highest agreement of 83.64%, the sensitivity and specificity both above 80% being respectively 88.46% and 83.13%, the highest Youden Index of 0.72 and the largest area of 0.86 under ROC curve. The -1.5 s cutoff score for ASQ-C showed the following properties: 71.75% agreement, 100% sensitivity, 68.72% specificity, Youden Index = 0.69, the area under ROC curve = 0.84. The -s cutoff score for ASQ-C showed the following properties: the lowest agreement of 55.02%, 100% sensitivity, the lowest specificity of 50.21%, the lowest Youden Index of 0.50, and the smallest area of 0.75 under ROC curve. When the cutoff score for BSID II was set at -s, the -2 s for ASQ-C showed the following properties: the highest agreement of 85.87%, the lowest sensitivity of 68.57%, the highest specificity of 91.96%, Youden Index = 0.61, the smallest area = 0.77 under ROC curve. The -1.5 s for ASQ-C showed the following properties: the agreement of 80.67%, the sensitivity and specificity both above 70% being respectively 85.71% and 78.89%, the highest Youden Index of 0.65, the largest area of 0.82 under ROC. The -s cutoff score for ASQ-C showed the following properties: the lowest agreement of 68.40%, the highest sensitivity of 94.29%, the lowest specificity of 59.30%, the lowest Youden Index of 0.54, and the area under ROC curve = 0.80. When the cutoff score for BSID II was -1 to 2 s, the identifying percentages of the -2 s, -1.5 s and -s for the ASQ-C were 56.82%, 77.27% and 90.91%, respectively.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>For developmental delay identification, the -2 s cutoff score for ASQ-C produces the most robust validity and highest accuracy; for the identification of suspected developmental delay and developmental delay, the -1.5 s cutoff score for ASQ-C has the highest screening accuracy with appropriate sensitivity and specificity; for identifying the suspected developmental delay, the -s cutoff score for ASQ-C has the highest percentage of the identification. It is necessary to add 1 - 2 s to the ASQ-C's cutoff scores as the standard for screening suspected developmental delays.<br><br>
Effect Of Synthetic Link N Peptide On The Expression Of Type I And Type Ii Collagens In Human Intervertebral Disc Cells. Source: Tissue Engineering. Part A
December 31st, 2010 PMID: 21067464 Guang Yao
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with proteolytic degradation of proteoglycan aggregates present within the extracellular matrix of the disc. Link N peptide (DHLSDNYTLDHDRAIH) is the N-terminal peptide of link protein, which stabilizes the proteoglycan aggregates. It is generated in vivo by proteolytic degradation during tissue turnover. It has been previously shown that this peptide can stimulate the synthesis of collagens by articular cartilage and bovine IVD cells in vitro. Being a synthetic peptide, Link N has considerable financial benefits for clinical use over recombinant growth factors because it is extremely cheap to produce. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Link N on the expression of types I and II collagen and investigate the cellular mechanisms of Link N signal transduction in human IVD cells. The present results suggest that Link N stimulates the expression of types I and II collagen in human IVD cells. More specifically, Link N stimulated the expression of type I in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, but not in annulus fibrosus cells. As Link N also decreased the phosphorylation of p38 in NP cells only, results suggest that p38 is a mediator of the effect of Link N on type I collagen expression. p38 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family highlighted by three major cascades: p38, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Link N showed no effect on the latter two pathways, suggesting a specific effect of Link N on the p38 cascade. On the other hand, Link N stimulated the expression of type II collagen in both NP and annulus fibrosus, suggesting that other mechanisms are implicated in the control of type II collagen expression in disc cells, without excluding p38 for the NP. In conclusion, the present study showed that Link N can modulate the expression of collagen in human IVD cells.<br><br>
Production And Purification Of Vp2 Protein Of Porcine Parvovirus Expressed In An Insect Baculovirus Cell System. Source: Virology Journal
December 10th, 2010 PMID: 21143963 Guang Yao
The porcine parvovirus (PPV) VP2 protein was expressed in an insect-baculovirus cell system and was purified using Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. The recombinant 6-His-tagged VP2 protein with molecular mass (Mr) of about 64 kDa was detected by anti-his antibody and anti-PPV serum. Electron microscopy showed that the purified VP2 protein assembled into spherical particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 22 nm. The expressed VP2 was antigenically similar to the native capsid protein according to HA and a Western blotting assay performed with polyclonal antibodies collected from an outbreak of PPV in one farm. This study provides a foundation for the application of VP2 protein in the clinical diagnosis of PPV or in the vaccination against PPV in the future.<br><br>
Indirect Biamperometric Determination Of O Phenylenediamine In Lab On Valve Format Using Reversible Indicating Redox System. Source: The Analyst
December 3rd, 2010 PMID: 21127795 Guang Yao
The miniaturized lab-on-valve (LOV) manifold well hyphenated with indirect biamperometry is presented for automated determination of trace level concentrations of organic environmental pollutants by programmable flow. The experimental procedure was carried out by means of taking o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) as a model analyte, relying on the Fe(iii)/Fe(ii) couple that served as an indicating redox system. The miniaturized electrochemical flow cell (EFC) designed and processed was integrated into the LOV module which is assembled with two identical polarized platinum electrodes between which a small potential difference (ΔE) was applied, to implement automated on-line analysis in a closed system. Factors affecting analytical performance are discussed, including indicating redox systems, concentration of indicating system, the acidity, the potential difference, and flow variables in the LOV. The calibration curve showed an excellent linearity in the concentration range of 5.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9993). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for OPDA were found to be 1.1 × 10(-7) and 3.7 × 10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively. A sampling frequency of 40 h(-1) was obtained along with an R.S.D. of 2.8% at 1.0 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) OPDA (n = 11). The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the assay of OPDA in industrial waste water.<br><br>
Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A 3 D Rotational Angiography Study. Source: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
December 2nd, 2010 PMID: 21125475 Guang Yao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:<br>the purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical value of 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) for evaluation of cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by comparison with 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA).<br><br>METHODS:<br>forty-six patients who had undergone 2D DSA and 3DRA for evaluation of cerebral vasospasm following SAH were retrospectively analyzed. 3DRA was routinely performed after standard 2D DSA. 3D volume rendering images were created from 3DRA dataset and compared with DSA for the detection and characterization of vasospasm. Results: Of the 46 patients investigated, 25 had vasospasm on 2D DSA images. No vasospasm was observed in 21 patients with aneurysmal SAH. According to the reference standard of DSA, 46 spastic segments were found in 25 patients with vasospasms. A total of 51 spastic segments were found on 3DRA volume rendering angiograms. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 3DRA for detecting vasospasm were 100, 76, 90, 100%, respectively.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>the pseudo-spasm phenomenon was frequently observed on 3DRA volume rendering images. 3DRA was less useful than 2D DSA for evaluation of vasospasm after SAH.<br><br>
[Total Hip Replacement With Collum Femoris Preserving For The Treatment Of Advanced Stage Of Femoral Head Necrosis Of Young Patients: A Report Of Results Of More Than Five Years Follow Up]. Source: Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi [Chinese Journal Of Surgery]
November 24th, 2010 PMID: 21092607 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To observe the results of total hip replacement with collum femoris preserving for the treatment of advanced stage of femoral head necrosis of youth.<br><br>METHODS:<br>From August 2002 to November 2009, 21 patients (28 hips) with advanced stage of femoral head necrosis were treated with total hip replacement with collum femoris preserving. Sixteen males (22 hips) and 5 females (6 hips) with an average age of 36 years (range from 26 to 51 years) were included. All patients were evaluated clinically using Harris score, the prosthesis components were assessed for position, loosening, bone resorption and other conditions with radiographs.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>Nineteen patients (26 hip) were followed up for mean 5 years and 7 months (ranging 5 years and 3 months to 7 years and 1 month), 2 patients were missed. The average Harris score increased from the preoperative average 48.5 to 90.2. The leg-length discrepancy (the difference was less than 2 cm) occurred in 3 cases. No thigh pain and revision.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>Total hip arthroplasty with collum femoris preserving is one of the best choices for the treatment of advanced stage of femoral head necrosis of young patients with good midterm outcome.<br><br>
A Systematic Review Of The Incidence And Prevalence Of Long Term Neurological Conditions In The Uk. Source: Neuroepidemiology
November 17th, 2010 PMID: 21088431 Guang Yao
BACKGROUND:<br>Updated, robust estimates of the incidence and prevalence of rare long-term neurological conditions in the UK are not available. Global estimates may be misrepresentative as disease aetiology may vary by location.<br><br>OBJECTIVES:<br>To systematically review the incidence and prevalence of long-term neurological conditions in the UK since 1988. Search Strategy: Medline (January 1988 to January 2009), Embase (January 1988 to January 2009), CINAHL (January 1988 to January 2009) and Cochrane CENTRAL databases.<br><br>SELECTION CRITERIA:<br>UK population-based incidence/prevalence studies of long-term neurological conditions since 1988. Exclusion criteria included inappropriate diagnoses and incomprehensive case ascertainment. Data Collection and Analysis: Articles were included based on the selection criteria. Data were extracted from articles with ranges of incidence and prevalence reported.<br><br>MAIN RESULTS:<br>Eight studies met the criteria (3 on motor neurone disease; 4 on Huntington's disease; 1 on progressive supranuclear palsy). The incidence of motor neurone disease ranged from 1.06 to 2.4/100,000 person-years. The prevalence ranged from 4.02 to 4.91/100,000. The prevalence of Huntington's disease ranged from 4.0 to 9.94/100,000. The prevalence of progressive supranuclear palsy ranged from 3.1 to 6.5/100,000.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>The review updates the incidence/prevalence of long-term neurological conditions. Future epidemiological studies must incorporate comprehensive case ascertainment methods and strict diagnostic criteria.<br><br>
An Incidentally Detected Large Papillary Fibroelastoma On Pulmonary Valve. Source: Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
November 16th, 2010 PMID: 20545986 Guang Yao
[Studies Of The Norm And Psychometric Properties Of Ages And Stages Questionnaires In Shanghai Children]. Source: Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. Chinese Journal Of Pediatrics
November 8th, 2010 PMID: 21055084 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To introduce the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) to China, we created ASQ-Chinese (ASQ-C) and carried out studies of its norm and the psychometrical properties in Shanghai children aged 3-66 months in collaboration with the author of the ASQ with the permissions from the publisher.<br><br>METHOD:<br>The 19 ASQ intervals were translated into Chinese, to make the ASQ-C culturally relevant, and back translated into English. The project used a stratified cluster sampling method and recruited children aged 3 - 66 months with respect to demographic characteristics that were representative of Shanghai census data, and excluded the children whose mother tongue was not Chinese and/or diagnosed with disabilities by the authoritative hospitals in Shanghai. Parents/caregivers of the 8472 children either independently completed the age-appropriate ASQ-Cs or completed with help from the researchers for the normative samples. Among them, professionals completed the age-appropriate ASQ-C again for 519 children within six days after the parents/caregivers completed the ASQ-C for inter-rater reliability. In terms of test-retest reliability, 651 parents completed another age-appropriate questionnaires within a 10- to 23-day interval. For concurrent validity, BSIDII were administered with 255 children from 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30-month ASQ-C age intervals. The cutoffs of the ASQ-C and the BSIDII were all set at the two standard deviations below the means. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 13.0.<br><br>RESULT:<br>The ASQ-Cs were independently completed by 85.25% of the parents/caregivers; the percentage of gender, family income and region of residence were similar to the Shanghai population census conducted in the recent years. Two standard deviations below the means were used as the cutoff scores of the ASQ-Cs across the age intervals. In terms of internal consistency of the ASQ-C, Cronbach standardized alpha was 0.77. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the ASQ-C total scores of the two testers was 0.84 (P < 0.0001). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the ASQ-C total scores of the two tests was 0.82 (P < 0.0001). The percentage of the agreement between the ASQ-C and the BSID II was 84.31%, the sensitivity of ASQ-C was 85.00%, and the specificity of ASQ-C was 84.26%.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>It is practicable that the ASQ-C can be completed by the parents/caregivers of Shanghai children. ASQ-C has solid psychometric properties and is worthy of further research and introduction to China.<br><br>
[Instrumented Slip Reduction Combined With 360 Degrees Circumferential Fusion And Restoration Of Laminae For Adult Isthmic Spondylolisthesis]. Source: Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi = Zhongguo Xiufu Chongjian Waike Zazhi = Chinese Journal Of Reparative And Reconstructive Surgery
November 3rd, 2010 PMID: 21046797 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mid-term clinical outcome of instrumented slip reduction combined with 360 degrees circumferential fusion and restoration laminae for symptomatic adult isthmic spondylolisthesis. METHODS: Between October 2004 and March 2008, 44 patients with symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent instrumented slip reduction combined with 360 degrees circumferential fusion and restoration laminae. There were 15 males and 29 females with an average age of 38.4 years (range, 28-45 years). The disease duration was 14 months to 7 years (38 months on average). The affected vertebrae was L4-5 in 18 patients and L5, S1 in 26 patients. According to Meyerding's grade for spondylolisthesis, 28 cases were rated as grade II and 16 as grade III. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) scores were evaluated before operation and at last follow-up; the radiographical outcome was evaluated by measuring slipping percentage, heights of intervertebral space and foramen, and fusion rate. RESULTS; All patients were followed up 20-60 months (42 months on average). The VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores were all significantly improved at last follow-up when compared with those before operation (P < 0.05). According to Morelos criteria, the clinical results were excellent in 32 patients, good in 9, and fair in 3; the excellent and good rate was 93.2%. The preoperative average percentage of slip was 47.5%, which was improved to 2.6% 3 days after operation; the total average reduction rate was 97.4%, and it was maintained at last followup. The heights of intervertebral space and foramen were all improved significantly after operation (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between at 3 days after operation and at last follow-up (P > 0.05). X-ray and CT showed bony fusion 1 year after operation in all patients with a fusion rate of 100%. Complications included pain at donor site of iliac bone in 4 cases, superficial infection in 2 cases, dural tear in 1 case, and degeneration of adjacent vertebrae in 2 cases; no nerve root injury, pseudoarthrosis, failure of internal fixation, and acquired spinal canal stenosis occurred. CONCLUSION; Instrumented slip reduction combined with 360 degrees circumferential fusion and restoration laminae is a reliable procedure for adult isthmic spondylolisthesis with satisfactory mid-term results, a high fusion rate and low complication rate. The long-term outcomes should be verified by follow-up in the future.<br><br>
Efficient Tryptic Proteolysis Accelerated By Laser Radiation For Peptide Mapping In Proteome Analysis. Source: Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. In English)
October 21st, 2010 PMID: 20872386 Guang Yao
Research Resource: Genome Wide Mapping Of In Vivo Androgen Receptor Binding Sites In Mouse Epididymis. Source: Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
October 13th, 2010 PMID: 20943813 Guang Yao
Epididymal function depends on androgen signaling through the androgen receptor (AR), although most of the direct AR target genes in epididymis remain unknown. Here we globally mapped the AR binding regions in mouse caput epididymis in which AR is highly expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing indicated that AR bound selectively to 19,377 DNA regions, the majority of which were intergenic and intronic. Motif analysis showed that 94% of the AR binding regions harbored consensus androgen response elements enriched with multiple binding motifs that included nuclear factor 1 and activator protein 2 sites consistent with combinatorial regulation. Unexpectedly, AR binding regions showed limited conservation across species, regardless of whether the metric for conservation was based on local sequence similarity or the presence of consensus androgen response elements. Further analysis suggested the AR target genes are involved in diverse biological themes that include lipid metabolism and sperm maturation. Potential novel mechanisms of AR regulation were revealed at individual genes such as cysteine-rich secretory protein 1. The composite studies provide new insights into AR regulation under physiological conditions and a global resource of AR binding sites in a normal androgen-responsive tissue.<br><br>
Modeling Transient Pupillary Light Reflex Induced By A Short Light Flash. Source: Ieee Transactions On Bio Medical Engineering
September 27th, 2010 PMID: 20876003 Guang Yao
A pupillary light reflex (PLR) model was proposed in this paper by considering the iris muscle mechanical properties and modulation inputs from both parasympathetic and sympathetic systems. The model can describe very well the experimental PLR responses induced by a short light flash of various intensities. In addition, an inverse method was developed to fit numerically this model to experimental PLR data. The model was tested in experimental human PLR data to extract separately the parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations during PLR. The results indicated a higher parasympathetic and a lower sympathetic activity in females than in males, which was consistent with previous findings in cardiovascular studies. This new model may help improve our understanding of the PLR process and could be applied to analyze autonomic nervous interaction during pupillary responses.<br><br>
Low Energy Laser Light (632.8 Nm) Suppresses Amyloid β Peptide Induced Oxidative And Inflammatory Responses In Astrocytes. Source: Neuroscience
September 25th, 2010 PMID: 20884337 Guang Yao
Oxidative stress and inflammation are important processes in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have implicated the role of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) in mediating these processes. In astrocytes, oligomeric Aβ induces the assembly of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complexes resulting in its activation to produce anionic superoxide. Aβ also promotes production of pro-inflammatory factors in astrocytes. Since low energy laser has previously been reported to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation in biological systems, the objective of this study was to examine whether this type of laser light was able to abrogate the oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by Aβ. Primary rat astrocytes were exposed to Helium-Neon laser (λ=632.8 nm), followed by the treatment with oligomeric Aβ. Primary rat astrocytes were used to measure Aβ-induced production of superoxide anions using fluorescence microscopy of dihydroethidium (DHE), assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits by the colocalization between the cytosolic p47(phox) subunit and the membrane gp91(phox) subunit using fluorescent confocal microscopy, phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) cPLA(2) and expressions of pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) using Western blot Analysis. Our data showed that laser light at 632.8 nm suppressed Aβ-induced superoxide production, colocalization between NADPH oxidase gp91(phox) and p47(phox) subunits, phosphorylation of cPLA(2,) and the expressions of IL-1β and iNOS in primary astrocytes. We demonstrated for the first time that 632.8 nm laser was capable of suppressing cellular pathways of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses critical in the pathogenesis in AD. This study should prove to provide the groundwork for further investigations for the potential use of laser therapy as a treatment for AD.<br><br>
Applicability Of The Chinese Version Of The Prodromal Questionnaire. Source: Journal Of The Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan Yi Zhi
September 24th, 2010 PMID: 20863992 Guang Yao
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:<br>Early detection and intervention of psychosis is clinically important. This study aimed to test the applicability of the Chinese version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (CPQ) for identifying prodromal states of psychosis.<br><br>METHODS:<br>This is a two-group cross-sectional comparative study. The Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) was translated into traditional Chinese based on Brislin's Revised Model. Like the PQ, the CPQ provides results on four subscales: (1) positive symptoms, (2) negative symptoms, (3) disorganized symptoms, and (4) general symptoms. An expert panel of five senior psychiatrists established the content validity of the CPQ. The experimental group was a sample of 100 first-visit patients to a psychiatric outpatient department (FVPOD). The comparison group comprised 98 nursing students without any history of psychiatric disturbances. Both the CPQ and the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12 were administered to all 198 subjects. Clinical psychosis was assessed using the Chinese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and 30 of the 100 FVPOD subjects were thus identified as psychotic patients and the remaining 70 were non-psychotic.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>Content validity of the CPQ was confirmed by an expert panel of five senior psychiatrists, achieving an overall reliability in the range of 0.86-0.93. The FVPOD group and comparison group had significantly different mean scores on all four subscales of the CPQ. In identifying psychotic cases, the 35-item positive symptom subscale had high sensitivity (97%) and low specificity (30%) with a cutoff value of 8. Due to the low specificity, patients identified as potential psychotic cases were referred for further clinical evaluation.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>Applicability of the CPQ was demonstrated by its high reliability and good ability to discriminate between clinical patients and a comparison group. The 35-item positive symptom subscale can be useful alone in general mental health settings for screening psychotic cases.<br><br>
[Correlation Between In Vitro Bacterial Growth Velocity Of Blood Of Patients With Clinical Parameters And Prognosis In Patients With Escherichia Coli Bacteremia]. Source: Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue = Chinese Critical Care Medicine = Zhongguo Weizhongbing Jijiuyixue
September 21st, 2010 PMID: 20854732 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To identify the clinical and laboratory parameters correlating with speed of bacterial growth in culture and independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia.<br><br>METHODS:<br>This retrospective study was conducted at Beijing University Third Hospital. The medical records and microbiological database of the patients diagnosed as Escherichia coli bacteremia between January 2007 and December 2009 were collected. The parameter of time to positivity (TTP) was used to be a surrogate marker of bacterial growth. Univariate analysis was used to identify relationship between clinical parameters and the speed of bacterial growth. Logistic multivariate analysis was used to identify risk factors of in-hospital mortality.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>The medical records of 112 patients during the study period were collected, 25 patients died during hospital stay, the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 22.3%. Univariate analysis indicated the rapid-growth (TTP≤7 hours) group (n=20) had higher incidence of neutropenia (40.0% vs. 15.2%), higher incidence of primary bacteremia (40.0% vs. 18.5%) and higher in-hospital mortality rate (45.0% vs. 17.4%) than those with slow bacterial growth (TTP>7 hours) group (n =92, all P<0.05). The death group (n=25) was found to have a higher incidence of TTP≤7 hours (36.0% vs. 12.6%), higher incidence of active malignancies (44.0% vs. 24.1%), higher incidence of neutropenia (36.0% vs. 14.9%), higher rate of isolation of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBL)-producing strains (48.0% vs. 24.1%) than the survival group (n=87, all P<0.05). Logistic multivariate analysis suggested the significant predictors of in-hospital mortality included TTP≤7 hours [odds ratio (OR)=3.412, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.1819.856, P=0.023], ESBL-producing strains (OR=2.545, 95% CI=0.9776.625, P=0.056).<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>In vitro Escherichia coli growth speed in the blood culture correlates with the incidence of neutropenia and primary bacteremia, and TTP≤7 hours and ESBL-producing strains may be the strong, independent risk factors of a worse prognosis in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia.<br><br>
Stochastic E2 F Activation And Reconciliation Of Phenomenological Cell Cycle Models. Source: P Lo S Biology
September 21st, 2010 PMID: 20877711 Guang Yao
The transition of the mammalian cell from quiescence to proliferation is a highly variable process. Over the last four decades, two lines of apparently contradictory, phenomenological models have been proposed to account for such temporal variability. These include various forms of the transition probability (TP) model and the growth control (GC) model, which lack mechanistic details. The GC model was further proposed as an alternative explanation for the concept of the restriction point, which we recently demonstrated as being controlled by a bistable Rb-E2F switch. Here, through a combination of modeling and experiments, we show that these different lines of models in essence reflect different aspects of stochastic dynamics in cell cycle entry. In particular, we show that the variable activation of E2F can be described by stochastic activation of the bistable Rb-E2F switch, which in turn may account for the temporal variability in cell cycle entry. Moreover, we show that temporal dynamics of E2F activation can be recast into the frameworks of both the TP model and the GC model via parameter mapping. This mapping suggests that the two lines of phenomenological models can be reconciled through the stochastic dynamics of the Rb-E2F switch. It also suggests a potential utility of the TP or GC models in defining concise, quantitative phenotypes of cell physiology. This may have implications in classifying cell types or states.<br><br>
Validation Of The Medical Outcomes Study Hiv (Mos Hiv) Health Survey Among Hiv Infected Patients In Taiwan. Source: Quality Of Life Research : An International Journal Of Quality Of Life Aspects Of Treatment, Care And Rehabilitation
August 29th, 2010 PMID: 20803317 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVES:<br>To examine both the reliability and the validity of the 'Medical Outcomes Study HIV' (MOS-HIV) health survey among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan.<br><br>METHODS:<br>Data were collected from 619 HIV-infected outpatients, with the reliability and the validity of the MOS-HIV survey subsequently being examined by multi-trait scaling techniques, internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity and factorial validity.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>The MOS-HIV health survey was found to have excellent success rates in the item-consistency and discriminant-validity tests, as well as good convergent validity and known-group validity. An acceptable fit was found for three of the four indices in the original two-factor model (non-normed fit index = 0.92, comparative fit index = 0.94 and standardized root mean squared residual = 0.056).<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>The findings of the present study provide strong evidence in support of the reliability and validity of the MOS-HIV health survey for the assessment of quality of life among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan. We find that the original factor structure of the MOS-HIV survey remains valid for patients from Chinese cultural backgrounds. This study therefore contributes to the existing evidence within the extant literature on the cultural relevance of the MOS-HIV health survey (a measure originally developed within a Western culture) as a valid measure for cross-cultural comparative studies on health-related quality of life.<br><br>
Effect Of Parathyroid Hormone On Type X And Type Ii Collagen Expression In Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Osteoarthritic Patients. Source: Tissue Engineering. Part A
August 18th, 2010 PMID: 20569194 Guang Yao
A major drawback of current cartilage and intervertebral disc tissue engineering is that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from osteoarthritic (OA) patients express type X collagen (COL10), a marker of late-stage chondrocyte hypertrophy (associated with endochondral ossification). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates endochondral ossification by inhibiting chondrocyte differentiation toward hypertrophy. In this study, we investigated the effect of PTH on expression of COL10 in MSCs from OA patients and analyzed the potential mechanisms related to its effect. MSCs were obtained from aspirates from the intramedullary canal of donors undergoing total hip replacement for OA. Expanded cells were then incubated for 0-48  h without (control) or with 100  nM PTH (1-34). Protein expression and phosphorylation were measured by Western blot. Results showed that PTH (1-34) inhibited expression of COL10 in MSCs from OA patients in a time-dependent manner. In parallel, PTH (1-34) stimulated expression of COL2, a marker of chondrogenic differentiation. Results also showed that PTH (1-34) inhibited in a sustained manner the phosphorylation of p38 and AKT protein kinase signaling pathways. Interestingly, the modulation of COL2 and COL10 gene expression was significant as rapidly as after 1  h in the presence of PTH (1-34); changes in the phosphorylation of p38 and AKT were significant only after 6  h. This suggests that while p38 and AKT protein kinase signaling pathways may not be required to initiate the regulation of expression of COL2 and COL10 by PTH (1-34), these pathways may modulate later events necessary for preventing precocious MSC hypertrophy.<br><br>
Immunosuppressive Constituents From Urtica Dentata Hand. Source: Journal Of Asian Natural Products Research
August 13th, 2010 PMID: 20706909 Guang Yao
A novel biscoumarin, 6,6',7,7'-tetramethoxyl-8,8'-biscoumarin (1), was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Urtica dentata Hand, together with five known compounds named as 7,7'-dihydroxy-6,6'-dimethoxy-8,8'-biscoumarin (2), 7,7'-dimethoxy-6,6'-biscoumarin (3), scoparone (4), vanillic acid (5), and daucosterol (6). Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 were confirmed to be a rare carbon-carbon linked symmetrical biscoumarin. Compounds 1-4, especially 1 (IC(50) = 8.18 x 10(- 5) mol/l), showed potent immunosuppressive activities as determined by the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay for lymphocyte proliferation. Also, in the FACS analysis, 1 (IC(50) = 5.19 x 10(- 4) mol/l) promoted the differentiation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells distinctly compared to the normal control. Thus, 1 possessed specific immunosuppressive property by eliciting T regulatory cells, which may provide a potential treatment strategy for autoimmune diseases.<br><br>
The Discovery Of An Orally Efficacious Positive Allosteric Modulator Of The Calcium Sensing Receptor Containing A Dibenzylamine Core. Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
August 12th, 2010 PMID: 20708930 Guang Yao
The discovery of a series of novel and orally efficacious type II calcimimetics, developed from the lead compound 1, is described herein. Compound 22 suppressed plasma PTH levels relative to vehicle when dosed orally in a rat pharmacodynamic model.<br><br>
[Thyroid Disruption Induced By Pentachlorophenol]. Source: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal Of Preventive Medicine]
July 26th, 2010 PMID: 20654147 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To assess thyroid disruption induced by sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP) using Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommended TG 407 method.<br><br>METHODS:<br>A total of 30 specific pathogen free (SPF) SD adult male and female rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, and treated with water, 0.33 and 30 mg x kg(-1)x d(-1) of PCP-Na by oral gavage for consecutive 28 days, respectively. After final treatment, histological changes of thyroid were observed by hematoxylin-eosin stain, and the levels of thyroid hormones (total thyroxine (TT(4)), free thyroxine (FT(4)), total triiodothyronine (TT(3)), and free triiodothyronine (FT(3))) were determined by radioimmunoassay. The expression levels of thyroid receptors (TRalpha and TRbeta) mRNA and deiodinases (DioI, DioII and DioIII) mRNA in liver were analyzed by RT-PCR.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>In high dose group, liver weight coefficient of male and female rats were (4.82 +/- 0.42)% and (4.99 +/- 0.17)%, increased by 36.2% (t = 7.338, P < 0.01) and 41.8% (t = 8.955, P < 0.01), compared to control group ((3.54 +/- 0.14)%, (3.52 +/- 0.19)%), respectively, while the significant changes of kidney or thyroid weight were not observed. In high dose group, the levels of TT(4) and FT(4) in serum of male rats were (64.95 +/- 7.16) nmol/L and (8.16 +/- 2.29) pmol/L, and decreased by 26.6% (t = -3.999, P < 0.01) and 42.3% (t = -4.112, P < 0.01) compared to control group ((88.48 +/- 6.99) nmol/L, (14.13 +/- 1.68) pmol/L). In the same group, FT(4) in serum of female rats was (4.94 +/- 0.89) pmol/L, decreased by 55.5% (t = -3.380, P = 0.012) compared to control group ((11.10 +/- 3.40) pmol/L) and TT(3) and FT(3) in serum of female rats were (1.92 +/- 0.24) nmol/L and (3.05 +/- 0.79) pmol/L, increased by 74.5% (t = 5.263, P < 0.01) and 55.6% (t = 3.495, P < 0.01) compared to control group ((1.10 +/- 0.23) nmol/L, (1.96 +/- 0.32) pmol/L), respectively. PCP-Na didn't affect the expression levels of TRalpha, TRbeta, DioIII mRNA in high dose group, while DioII expression of male rats (0.209 +/- 0.017) down-regulated by 79.2% (t = -5.426, P < 0.01) compared to control group (1.006 +/- 0.137), and DioI expression of female rats (1.844 +/- 0.189) up-regulated by 66.6% (t = 4.359, P < 0.01) compared to control group (1.005 +/- 0.083), indicating DioI and DioII poss different sensitivity to adverse effects induced by PCP-Na between male and female rats. The histopathological results showed that PCP-Na could give rise to hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium cells, and the depletion of colloid. There were no significant changes in serum THs levels and expression of TRalpha, TRbeta, DioI-IIImRNA in low dose group. However, sporadic lymphocytic infiltration, follicles amplification in part and slightly increased in thickness of follicular cells were observed in this group.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>PCP is a kind of thyroid disrupting chemical.<br><br>
Lab On Valve (Lov) System Coupled To Irreversible Biamperometric Detection For The On Line Monitoring Of Catechol. Source: Talanta
July 21st, 2010 PMID: 20801363 Guang Yao
The analytical performance of lab-on-valve (LOV) system using irreversible biamperometry for the determination of catechol was evaluated. By integrating miniaturized electrochemical flow cell (EFC) designed and processed which is furnished with two identical polarized platinum electrodes, into the LOV unit, the lab-on-valve system combines sampling with analysis, realizing automated on-line analysis for catechol in a closed system. The biamperometric detection system was established to record the relationship between oxidation current and time by coupling the irreversible oxidation of catechol at one pretreated platinum electrode with the irreversible reduction of platinum oxide at the other pretreated platinum electrode. Factors influencing the analytical performance were optimized, including the potential difference (DeltaE), buffer solution and pH, and flow variables in the LOV. A linear calibration curve was obtained within the range of 1.0 x 10(-6)-5.0 x 10(-4) mol L(-1) of catechol with the detection limit (3 sigma) of 5.09 x 10(-7)mol L(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.39% for 11 successive determinations of 1 x 10(-5)mol L(-1) catechol and the sample throughput was 35h(-1). Moreover, this proposed method was applied to the analysis of catechol in beer sample, which was testified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).<br><br>
Transplantation Of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviates Lupus Nephritis In Mrl/Lpr Mice. Source: Lupus
July 20th, 2010 PMID: 20647254 Guang Yao
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease, which, despite the advances in immunosuppressive medical therapies, remains potentially fatal in some patients, especially in treatment-refractory patients. This study found that transplantation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) has the same therapeutic effect as transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), which has been reported to be efficient in treating SLE-related symptoms in MRL/lpr mice. Multi-treatment (at the 18th, 19th, and 20th weeks of age) of 1 × 10(6) UC-MSCs was able to decrease the levels of 24-h proteinuria, serum creatinine, and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody, and the extent of renal injury such as crescent formation in MRL/lpr mice. A lower, but still significant, reduction in these parameters was also observed in mice receiving a single dose of UC-MSCs (at the 18th week). UC-MSCs treatment also inhibited expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) expression in a similar fashion. UC-MSCs labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) were found in the lungs and kidneys 1 week post infusion. In addition, after 11 weeks post UC-MSCs infusion, human cells were found in kidney of UC-MSCs-treated mice. These findings indicated that UC-MSCs transplantation might be a potentially promising approach in the treatment of lupus nephritis, possibly by inhibiting MCP-1 and HMGB-1 production.<br><br>
Concanavalin A Immobilized Magnetic Nanoparticles For Selective Enrichment Of Glycoproteins And Application To Glycoproteomics In Hepatocelluar Carcinoma Cell Line. Source: Proteomics
July 12th, 2010 PMID: 20217867 Guang Yao
Protein glycosylation is one of the most important PTMs in biological organism. Lectins such as concanavalin A (Con A) have been widely applied to N-glycosylated protein investigation. In this study, we developed Con A-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles for selective separation of glycoproteins. At first, a facile immobilization of Con A on aminophenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was performed by forming boronic acid-sugar-Con A bond in sandwich structure using methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside as an intermedium. The selective capture ability of Con A-modified magnetic nanoparticles for glycoproteins was tested using standard glycoproteins and cell lysate of human hepatocelluar carcinoma cell line 7703. In total 184 glycosylated sites were detected within 172 different glycopeptides corresponding to 101 glycoproteins. Also, the regeneration of the protein-immobilized nanoparticles can easily be performed taking advantage of the reversible binding mechanism between boronic acid and sugar chain. The experiment results demonstrated that Con A-modified magnetic nanoparticles by the facile and low-cost synthesis provided a convenient and efficient enrichment approach for glycoproteins, and are promising candidates for large-scale glycoproteomic research in complicated biological samples.<br><br>
Targeted Overexpression Of Dkk1 In Osteoblasts Reduces Bone Mass But Does Not Impair The Anabolic Response To Intermittent Pth Treatment In Mice. Source: Journal Of Bone And Mineral Metabolism
July 3rd, 2010 PMID: 20602130 Guang Yao
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent, but the cellular mechanisms by which it increases bone mass are not fully understood. Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1) is an endogenous inhibitor of Wnt signaling and suppresses bone formation in vivo. We sought to determine if Dkk1 and anabolic PTH treatment interact in regulating bone mass. PTH treatment of primary murine osteoblasts for 24 h reduced Dkk1 expression by 90% as quantified by real-time PCR, whereas PTH treatment in vivo reduced Dkk1 expression by 30% when given as a single daily subcutaneous dose. To directly determine whether Dkk1 modulates the anabolic response of PTH in vivo, we engineered transgenic (TG) mice expressing murine Dkk1 under the control of the 2.3-kb rat collagen alpha-1 promoter. TG mice had significantly reduced bone mass, which was accompanied by reduced histomorphometric parameters of bone formation (reduced OV/TV, ObS/OS, and NOb/TAR). Treatment of TG mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with 95 ng/g body weight of human (1-34) PTH daily for 34 days resulted in comparable increases in bone mass at all skeletal sites. Histomorphometric analyses indicated that PTH treatment increased the numbers of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts in WT mice but only increased the numbers of osteoblasts in TG mice. We conclude that overexpression of Dkk1 does not attenuate the anabolic response to PTH in vivo.<br><br>
Correcting Optical Axis Calculation In Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography. Source: Ieee Transactions On Bio Medical Engineering
June 28th, 2010 PMID: 20595087 Guang Yao
Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) has found many applications in imaging birefringence tissue samples. Polarization-sensitive detection is often implemented by utilizing a circularly polarized incident light and detecting the two orthogonal horizontal- and vertical-polarized interference components. However, the obtained optical axes images were inappropriately represented as depth-dependent periodic maps in all reported studies. A detailed analysis confirmed that this misrepresentation was caused by the accumulation of optical retardation with depth. A simple method was proposed to numerically correct this optical-axis calculation. Experimental studies in tendon tissue demonstrated that this method can be applied to map the 2-D optical-axis distributions in enface PSOCT images.<br><br>
In Vivo Wound Healing And Antibacterial Performances Of Electrospun Nanofibre Membranes. Source: Journal Of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
June 23rd, 2010 PMID: 20186775 Guang Yao
In this work, nanofibre membranes have been produced from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polycaprolactone (PCL), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVdF-HFP), and polymer blend of PAN and polyurethane (PEU) using an electrospinning technique, and wound healing performance of the as-spun nanofibre membranes was examined in vivo using female Sprague-Dawley rats. To understand the nutrition effect, a wool protein was coated on PVA and PCL nanofibres and incorporated into PVA nanofibres via coelectrospinning of a PVA solution containing the wool protein. Silver nanoparticles were also applied to PVA nanofibres to improve antibacterial activity. It was found that the wound healing performance is mainly influenced by the porosity, air permeability, and surface wettability of the nanofibre membranes. A nanofibre membrane with good hydrophilicity and high porosity considerably facilitates the healing of wound especially at the early healing stage. However, the fiber diameter and antibacterial activity have little effect on the wound healing efficiency. As pores in nanofibre membranes are typically smaller than that of conventional cotton gauze, the nanofibre membrane should be able to decontaminate and prevent exogenous infections via sieve effect. This work provides basic understanding of material structure-property relationship for further design of efficient nanofibre-based wound dressing materials.<br><br>
Gax Gene Transfer Inhibits Vascular Remodeling Induced By Adventitial Inflammation In Rabbits. Source: Atherosclerosis
June 11th, 2010 PMID: 20598309 Guang Yao
AIMS:<br>Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) and inflammation play an important role in neointimal formation and vascular remodeling. The present study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of transcriptional regulator Gax gene transfection in aortic remodeling induced by adventitial inflammation.<br><br>METHODS AND RESULTS:<br>Fifty rabbits fed a chow diet were randomly divided into a normal control group (n=10) and experimental group (n=40). All rabbits in the experimental group underwent collar placement around the abdominal aorta and intra-collar injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce adventitial inflammation and they were further divided into model control group, saline-treated group, green fluorescence protein (Ad-GFP)-treated group and Gax gene (Ad-Gax)-treated group, respectively. Four weeks after treatment, the model control group, saline-treated group and Ad-GFP-treated group showed thickened neointima and adventitia, reduced lumen size and increased eccentricity and remodeling index of the abdominal aorta in comparison with the normal control group, whereas Ad-Gax-treated group exhibited attenuated neointimal formation and vascular remodeling (P<0.01-0.05) .The vascular expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, Smads, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), integrins and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) were significantly higher in the model control group, saline-treated group and Ad-GFP-treated group than those in the normal control group (P<0.01-0.05). In contrast, the local expression levels of these cytokines were substantially reduced by Ad-Gax gene transfer (P<0.01-0.05). Similarly, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines including C-reactive protein (CRP), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, MCP-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were significantly higher in the model control group, saline-treated group and Ad-GFP-treated group than those of the Ad-Gax-treated group (P<0.01-0.05). In vitro studies showed that Gax overexpression diminished inflammatory cytokine expression in LPS-stimulated arterial fibroblasts.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>Adventitial inflammation induces vascular remodeling via the interactions of multiple inflammatory cytokines and local Gax gene transfer in vivo can significantly inhibit these interactions and thereby attenuate local inflammation and vascular remodeling.<br><br>
Monitoring Extravascular Lung Water In Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced By Probable 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1 N1) Virus: Report Of Two Cases. Source: Chinese Medical Journal
June 9th, 2010 PMID: 20529569 Guang Yao
[Prognostic Value Of Assay Of Brain Natriuretic Peptide In Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome]. Source: Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue = Chinese Critical Care Medicine = Zhongguo Weizhongbing Jijiuyixue
June 3rd, 2010 PMID: 20519078 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To explore the prognostic value of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).<br><br>METHODS:<br>Eighty-six patients with ARDS who had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), from January 2004 to May 2009, were studied retrospectively. The baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded. The plasma concentration of BNP and Murray lung injury score (LIS) of the patients with their outcomes, and the relationship between the BNP concentration and LIS were analyzed. The prediction results of death and survival of patients using the cut off points of concentration of BNP and LIS were also analyzed.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>Eighty-six patients were diagnosed as ARDS.Among those patients with ARDS, 55 patients were dead and 31 patients were survival in 14 days. The proportion of pulmonary hypertension (25.8% vs. 72.7%) and that of using large dose of intravenous norepinephrine (38.7% vs. 94.5%), the time without using mechanical ventilation in 14 days [(8.63+/-3.26) days vs. (0.38+/-0.02) days], BNP concentration [(179.5+/-84.5) ng/L vs. (550.8+/-337.1) ng/L] and LIS (1.37+/-0.65 vs. 2.29+/-0.46) differed significantly between the survivors and the nonsurvivors (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The plasma concentration of BNP had a significant correlation with LIS (r=0.786, P<0.001). By using the threshold value of 329.5 ng/L for BNP, the specificity for the prediction of mortality was 96.8%. The threshold value for LIS of 1.875 showed sensitivity of 80.0%.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>BNP concentration and LIS were significantly elevated in nonsurvivors than survivors in patients with ARDS who have normal LVEF. High BNP level can predict mortality.<br><br>
Clinical Applicability Of The World Health Organization Quality Of Life Scale Brief Version (Whoqol Bref) To Mothers Of Children With Asthma In Taiwan. Source: Journal Of Clinical Nursing
May 26th, 2010 PMID: 20500325 Guang Yao
AIMS:<br>This study examined the clinical applicability of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) to mothers of children with asthma in Taiwan.<br><br>BACKGROUND:<br>The WHOQOL-BREF scale has been culturally adapted for Taiwan and applied to a variety of ill and healthy subjects in hospitals and the community and to the general population in the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. Its application to explore the QOL of mothers of children with asthma in Taiwan allows future cross-population comparisons.<br><br>DESIGN:<br>A cross-sectional survey.<br><br>METHODS:<br>Internal consistency, test-retest reliability; content validity, criterion-related validity and discriminant validity were assessed. A total of 229 mothers participated in the study.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>The WHOQOL-BREF showed acceptable psychometric properties. Internal consistency of 0.63-0.84, content validity r = 0.39-0.65 (p < 0.01) and criterion-related validity r = 0.28-0.65 (p < 0.05) were reported. Discriminant validity was also found, especially in the domain of physical health. Issues of QOL for mothers, especially in the realm of physical health need more support and attention from health professionals.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>This study supports the clinical applicability of the WHOQOL-BREF scale as a measure of QOL of mothers of children with asthma. Future studies to compare the QOL measured by WHOQOL-BREF in female caregivers of children with other chronic health conditions are suggested.<br><br>RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:<br>Our findings show that mothers are hardly ever free from the strains of the daily-care of an asthmatic and bear the uncertainties for the unending illness. The health care team is responsible for providing collaborative care approaches in hospital, home and school health care settings for children with asthma and their mothers.<br><br>
[Effects Of Lycopene On Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury In Rats]. Source: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu = Journal Of Hygiene Research
May 12th, 2010 PMID: 20459036 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To study the protective effects of lycopene (LP) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative stress in SD rats and the mechanism of them.<br><br>METHODS:<br>The rats were divided into five groups: normal control group, model control group, sham group and two LP groups (fed with 5 mg/kg bw or 20 mg/kg bw of lycopene daily for 15 days). The model for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The score of neurological behavior was evaluated at the 3rd and 24th hours after reperfusion. The rats were put to death 24 h after reperfusion. The size of cerebral infarction was measured. The activities of iNOS, SOD, CAT and the contents of NO and MDA in brain and serum uric acid were measured. The expressions of Bcl-2 mRNA and HIF-1alphamRNA in cortex were examined by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>In comparison with the model group, the neurological deficits were milder, the volumes of cerebral infarction were smaller, the activities of SOD, CAT in brain tissue were higher, the activities of iNOS as well as the contents of NO, MDA in brain tissue and serum uric acid were lower in Lycopene groups. Compared with the model group and control group, the expression of HIF-1 alpha mRNA of cortex in the high dose lycopene (20 mg/kg bw) group was up-regulated; while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA of cortex was up-regulated only in the low dose lycopene (5 mg/kg bw) group.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>There were some protective effects of oral administration of lycopene against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries induced by focal cerebral ischemia and oxidative stress. The possible mechanism may be related with increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, decreasing activities of iNOS,and up-regulating the expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA as well as Bcl-2 mRNA.<br><br>
Synthesis And Antibacterial Activities Of 6 O Methylerythromycin A 9 O (3 Aryl 2 Propenyl) Oxime Ketolide, 2,3 Enol Ether, And Alkylide Analogues. Source: European Journal Of Medicinal Chemistry
May 12th, 2010 PMID: 20627377 Guang Yao
A facile and efficient route was presented to achieve 3-keto-clarithromycin 9-O-(3-aryl-E-2-propenyl) oxime derivatives 8, 2,3-dehydro-3-O-allyl-clarithromycin 9-O-(3-aryl-E-2-propenyl) oxime derivatives 11, and 3-O-allyl-clarithromycin 9-O-(3-aryl-E-2-propenyl) oxime derivatives 12. Among them, compound 8, particularly 8d (Ar = 6-quinolyl), exhibited improved antibacterial activities against erythromycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and greatly enhanced activities against the resistant strains encoded by erm and mef genes, as compared to clarithromycin and azithromycin.<br><br>
Puf3 Acceleration Of Deadenylation In Vivo Can Operate Independently Of Ccr4 Activity, Possibly Involving Effects On The Pab1 M Rnp Structure. Source: Journal Of Molecular Biology
May 8th, 2010 PMID: 20435044 Guang Yao
The evolutionarily conserved PUF proteins stimulate CCR4 mRNA deadenylation through binding to 3' untranslated region sequences of specific mRNA. We have investigated the mechanisms by which PUF3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae accelerates deadenylation of the COX17 mRNA. PUF3 was shown to affect PAN2 deadenylation of the COX17 mRNA independent of the presence of CCR4, suggesting that PUF3 acts through a general mechanism to affect deadenylation. Similarly, eIF4E, the cap-binding translation initiation factor known to control CCR4 deadenylation, was shown to affect PAN2 activity in vivo. PUF3 was found to be required for eIF4E effects on COX17 deadenylation. Both eIF4E and PUF3 effects on deadenylation were shown, in turn, to necessitate a functional poly(A)-binding protein (PAB1) in which removal of the RRM1 (RNA recognition motif 1) domain of PAB1 blocked both their effects on deadenylation. While removal of the proline-rich region (P domain) of PAB1 substantially reduces CCR4 deadenylation at non-PUF3-controlled mRNA and correspondingly blocked eIF4E effects on deadenylation, PUF3 essentially bypassed this P domain requirement. These results indicate that the PAB1-mRNP structure is critical for PUF3 action. We also found that multiple components of the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, but not PAN2, interacted with PUF3. PUF3 appears, therefore, both to act independently of CCR4 activity, possibly through effects on PAB1-mRNP structure, and to be capable of retaining the CCR4-NOT complex.<br><br>
Cross Cultural Adaptation And Validation Of The Quebec User Evaluation Of Satisfaction With Assistive Technology (Quest 2.0): The Development Of The Taiwanese Version. Source: Clinical Rehabilitation
May 5th, 2010 PMID: 20442253 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To develop and validate a cross-cultural version of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) for users of assistive technology devices in Taiwan.<br><br>DESIGN:<br>A cross-sectional survey.<br><br>PROCEDURES:<br>The standard cultural adaptation procedure was used for questionnaire translation and cultural item design. A field test was then conducted for item selection and psychometric properties testing.<br><br>SUBJECTS:<br>One hundred and five volunteer assistive device users in community.<br><br>MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:<br>A questionnaire comprising 12 items of the QUEST 2.0 and 16 culture-specific items.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>One culture-specific item, 'Cost', was selected based on eight criteria and added to the QUEST 2.0 (12 items) to formulate the Taiwanese version of QUEST 2.0 (T-QUEST). The T-QUEST consisted of 13 items which were classified into two domains: device (8 items) and service (5 items). The internal consistencies of the device, service and total T-QUEST scores were 0.87, 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. The device, services and total T-QUEST scores achieved good test-retest stability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.90, 0.97, 0.95). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that T-QUEST had a two-factor structure for device and service in the construct of user satisfaction (53.42% of the variance explained).<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>Users of assistive device in different culture may have different concerns regarding satisfaction. T-QUEST is the first published version of QUEST with culture-specific items added to the original translated items of QUEST 2.0. T-QUEST was a valid and reliable tool for measuring user satisfaction among Mandarin-speaking individuals using various kinds of assistive devices.<br><br>
[Application Of Modified Paramedian Forehead Flap In Reconstruction Of Nasal Defect]. Source: Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi = Zhonghua Zhengxing Waike Zazhi = Chinese Journal Of Plastic Surgery
May 3rd, 2010 PMID: 20432914 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To investigate the feasibility and significance of modified paramedian forehead flap for nasal defect and reconstruction.<br><br>METHODS:<br>Modified paramedian forehead flaps with forehead muscle in the pedicle were used in 2 patients with nasal reconstruction and 7 patients with nasal defects. The flaps were elevated subcutaneously with only forehead muscle in the pedicle at the supraorbital site. The degree of flap axis ranged from 90 degrees to 50 degrees. Inverted L-shape design was used for 3 cases with low hair line.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>Skin branch of supratrochlear vessel was observed running at the subcutaneous layer during the operation. 8 flaps all survived successfully with good texture and color. Partial necrosis happened in the distal end of one flap with subcutaneous pedicle, which healed through dressing.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>Modified paramedian forehead flap, which includes muscle just in the pedicle, is based on the skin branch of supratrochlear vessel. The flap is very flexible and has reliable blood supply, leaving less morbidity in donor site. It also has good texture and skin color.<br><br>
[Regulation And Mechanism Of Notch Signaling Pathway In Small Cell Lung Cancer]. Source: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi Chinese Journal Of Pathology
April 14th, 2010 PMID: 20388374 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To investigate the status of Notch signaling pathway in small cell lung cancer (SCLC).<br><br>METHODS:<br>Expression plasmids of pEFBOS-NIC-MYC and pEFBOS-neo were transfected into NCI-H446 cells. Stably transfected cell lines were selected and their growth rates were examined by MTT method. Expression of downstream genes along the Notch signaling pathway were studied by RT-PCR. Protein expression of euroendocrine markers of CgA and NSE were detected by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>The expression of HES1 was increased in the pEFBOS-NIC-MYC group, but the expression of hASH in the pEFBOS-NIC-MYC group was decreased significantly. The transfected cells with pEFBOS-NIC-MYC plasmid showed a significantly slower growth rate compared with that of two control groups (P < 0.05, Student's t-test). Immunocytochemistry of NSE showed that PUs in the NIC transfected group, sham group and negative control group were 7.21 ± 0.59, 28.25 ± 1.46, 30.57 ± 1.31 respectively, the former one was smaller than the values of the latter two significantly (P < 0.01). Western blot analysis showed the grave scales of CgA in NIC transfected group and sham group to be 0.54 ± 0.03 and 0.99 ± 0.05 respectively (grave scales of the negative control was set as 1.00), the former one significantly smaller than that of the other two groups (P < 0.01). The grave scales of NSE in the NIC transfected group and sham group were 0.43 ± 0.02 and 1.07 ± 0.09 respectively (grave scales of the negative control was set as 1.00) and the former one was significantly smaller than the other two groups (P < 0.01).<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>Notch signaling pathway regulates SCLC cells through its inhibitory effect on hASH1 transcription via HES1 along with an expression inhibition of neuroendocrine markers in SCLC.<br><br>
Single Camera Spectral Domain Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography Using Offset B Scan Modulation. Source: Optics Express
April 14th, 2010 PMID: 20389749 Guang Yao
We report a simple implementation to acquire spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) using a single camera. By combining a dual-delay assembly in the reference arm and offset B-scan in the sample arm, the orthogonal vertical- and horizontal-polarized images were acquired in parallel and spatially separated by a fixed distance in the full range image space. The two orthogonal polarization images were recombined to calculate the intensity, retardance and fast-axis images. This system was easy to implement and capable of acquiring high-speed in vivo 3D polarization-sensitive OCT images.<br><br>
Long Term Effectiveness Of Patient Centered Training In Cultural Competence: What Is Retained? What Is Lost? Source: Academic Medicine : Journal Of The Association Of American Medical Colleges
March 31st, 2010 PMID: 20354383 Guang Yao
PURPOSE:<br>To determine whether the effects of a patient-centered cultural competence curriculum could be sustained for one year.<br><br>METHOD:<br>In 2006, 57 fifth-year medical students at National Taiwan University were randomly assigned either to a group that received training in patient-centered cross-cultural communication skills or one that received no training. Students' scores on objective structured clinical exams (OSCEs) were compared in the realms of exploring (1) patient perspectives and (2) social factors related to illness, immediately after training (OSCE1) and one year after training (OSCE2).<br><br>RESULTS:<br>Regarding students' exploration of patient perspectives, the intervention group scored significantly higher than the control group at OSCE1, but there was a significant decrease from OSCE1 to OSCE2 in the intervention group and no significant difference between the intervention and control group at OSCE2. Regarding students' exploration of social factors related to illness, the intervention group scored significantly higher than the control group at OSCE1, with a nonsignificant decrease from OSCE1 to OSCE2 in the two groups, such that the intervention group again scored higher than the control group in OSCE2.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>The effect of a patient-centered cultural competence training curriculum on students' exploration of social factors related to illness was sustained to a significant degree after one year, whereas the effects on students' exploration of patient perspectives were not. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which additional training can prevent the loss of student skills.<br><br>
Strain Difference Of Dna Binding Activity Of Nf Kappa B And Cytokine Gene Expression In Spleen Dendritic Cells Of Lewis And Fischer Rats. Source: The Chinese Journal Of Physiology
March 26th, 2010 PMID: 20337154 Guang Yao
To investigate the mechanisms of different responses to inflammatory stimuli between Lewis and Fischer rats, the DNA-binding activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and cytokine production of spleen dendritic cells (SDC) in Lewis and Fischer rats after peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS) treatment were determined. The results show that the DNA-binding activities of NF-kappaB in SDC were higher in Lewis rats than in Fischer rats. Furthermore, in Lewis rats, the increase in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activities was dose-dependent. However, there is no significant change in SDC of Fischer rats. In Lewis rats, the levels of IL-2 and IL-4 were decreased along with the increase of the concentration of PG-PS while TNF-alpha was increased. However, there was no obvious change of cytokine expression in Fischer rats in the presence of PG-PS. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the differences in the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB and cytokine production might mediate strain-specific differences of susceptibility to chronic inflammatory stimuli in Lewis and Fischer rats.<br><br>
Cytochrome P450 Mediated Epoxidation Of 2 Aminothiazole Based Akt Inhibitors: Identification Of Novel Gsh Adducts And Reduction Of Metabolic Activation Through Structural Changes Guided By In Silico And In Vitro Screening. Source: Chemical Research In Toxicology
March 15th, 2010 PMID: 20095585 Guang Yao
A 2-aminothiazole derivative 1 was developed as a potential inhibitor of the oncology target AKT, a serine/threonine kinase. When incubated in rat and human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, 1 underwent significant metabolic activation on its 2-aminothiazole ring, leading to substantial covalent protein binding. Upon addition of glutathione, covalent binding was reduced significantly, and multiple glutathione adducts were detected. Novel metabolites from the in vitro incubates were characterized by LC-MS and NMR to discern the mechanism of bioactivation. An in silico model was developed based on the proposed mechanism and was employed to predict bioactivation in 23 structural analogues. The predictions were confirmed empirically for the bioactivation liability, in vitro, by LC-MS methods screening for glutathione incorporation. New compounds were identified with a low propensity for bioactivation.<br><br>
Measurement Of Quality Of Life Using Eq 5 D In Patients On Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation: Comparison Of Patients, Family Caregivers, And Nurses. Source: Quality Of Life Research : An International Journal Of Quality Of Life Aspects Of Treatment, Care And Rehabilitation
March 12th, 2010 PMID: 20224902 Guang Yao
PURPOSE:<br>This study reports how QOL (quality of life) assessments differ between patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and their proxies (family caregivers and nurses).<br><br>METHODS:<br>We enrolled consecutive subjects on PMV for more than 21 days from five institutions. We conducted QOL assessments using the Taiwanese version of the EQ-5D in face-to-face interviews. Direct caregivers (family members and nurses) also completed the EQ-5D from the patient's point of view.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>For 55 of the 142 enrolled patients who were able to assess their QOL, we recruited 44 patient-family caregiver pairs, 53 patient-nurse pairs, and 42 family caregiver-nurse pairs. There were 81 family caregiver-nurse pairs out of 87 patients with poor cognition. The agreement between patient-family caregiver pairs was generally higher than that of patient-nurse pairs. As the proportions of exact agreement between family caregivers and nurses for patients with poor cognition were 98-99% for observable dimensions of mobility, self-care, and usual activities, they lead to a minimal difference in the final values.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>QOL assessments from family caregivers agreed more closely with patients than did those from nurses using EQ-5D evaluations for patients with clear cognition, but either proxy was acceptable for rating PMV patients with poor cognition.<br><br>
Synthesis And Antibacterial Activities Of A Novel Alkylide: 3 O (3 Aryl 2 Propargyl) And 3 O (3 Aryl 2 Propenyl)Clarithromycin Derivatives. Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
March 11th, 2010 PMID: 20356738 Guang Yao
A series of novel 3-O-(3-aryl-E-2-propenyl)clarithromycin derivatives 8 and 3-O-(3-aryl-2-propargyl)clarithromycin derivatives 11 were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities. Compared with 8c and 11c (Ar was 5-pyrimidyl), 3-O-(3-(5'-pyrimidyl)-Z-1-propenyl) counterpart 6c displayed 4- to 64-fold more potent activities against erythromycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, the activities of 6c, 8c, and 11c against erythromycin-resistant S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were in general 4-fold higher than those of the reference compound, clarithromycin and azithromycin.<br><br>
Giant Aneurysm Of The Left Atrial Appendage: Detected By Real Time 3 Dimensional Echocardiography. Source: Texas Heart Institute Journal / From The Texas Heart Institute Of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital
March 4th, 2010 PMID: 20200649 Guang Yao
Expression Of Transforming Growth Factor Beta1/Sma And Mad Related Proteins In Rat With Chronic Pancreatitis Induced By Dibutyltin Dichloride. Source: Pancreas
February 25th, 2010 PMID: 20182310 Guang Yao
Equi Intensity Distribution Of Optical Reflectance In A Fibrous Turbid Medium. Source: Applied Optics
February 15th, 2010 PMID: 20154751 Guang Yao
Light propagation in a fibrous anisotropic scattering medium is quite different from that in an isotropic medium. Both the anisotropic diffuse equation (ADE) and the continuous time random walk (CTRW) theory predict that the equi-intensity profiles of the surface reflectance have an elliptical shape in a fibrous turbid medium. In this study, we simulated the spatially resolved surface reflectance in a fibrous sample using a Monte Carlo model. A parametric equation was used to quantitatively characterize the geometric profiles of the reflectance patterns. The results indicated that the equi-intensity profiles of surface reflectance had elliptical shapes only when evaluated at distances far away from the incident point. The length ratio of the two orthogonal axes of the ellipse was not affected by the sample optical properties when the ratio of reduced scattering coefficients along the two axes is the same. But the relationship between the aforementioned two ratios was different from the predication of ADE theory. Only for fibers of small sizes did the fitted axes ratios approach the values predicted from the ADE theory.<br><br>
Value Of Left Ventricular Regional Ejection Fraction Determined By Real Time Three Dimensional Echocardiography In Diagnosis Of Aneurysm: Compared With Left Ventriculography. Source: Chinese Medical Journal
February 8th, 2010 PMID: 20137486 Guang Yao
BACKGROUND:<br>Regional ejection fraction (EF(R)) measured by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) provides a novel method for quantifying left-ventricular (LV) regional systolic function. We aimed to explore the diagnostic value of regional ejection fraction (EFR) derived from RT-3DE in detecting LV aneurysms in patients with myocardial infarction.<br><br>METHODS:<br>Thirty-eight patients with myocardial infarction were prospectively enrolled and underwent electrocardiography (ECG), two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE), RT-3DE and left ventriculography (LVG). Subjects with a negative EFR in at least one segment on RT-3DE were considered as having a ventricular aneurysm. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, and positive and negative predictive values of ECG, 2-DE and RT-3DE in determining LV aneurysm with detection by LVG.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>On LVG an LV aneurysm was diagnosed in 16 (42.1%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 86.4% for ECG, 81.2% and 95.4% for 2-DE, and 100.0% and 90.9% for RT-3DE in diagnosing LV aneurysm. Youden's indexes for ECG, 2-DE and RT-3DE were 0.49, 0.77 and 0.91, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 76.9% and 76.0% for ECG, 92.9% and 87.5% for 2-DE, and 88.9% and 100.0% for RT-3DE.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>RT-3DE-derived EFR provides a novel, reliable index in the diagnosis of LV aneurysm and has excellent sensitivity and specificity.<br><br>
Numerical Methods And Workstation For The Quantitative Analysis Of Real Time Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography. Source: Ieee Transactions On Information Technology In Biomedicine : A Publication Of The Ieee Engineering In Medicine And Biology Society
February 2nd, 2010 PMID: 20129869 Guang Yao
Using the quantitative analysis of real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RT MCE), clinicians can assess the myocardial perfusion of patients, noninvasively and accurately. We designed a workstation to assist clinicians to automatically implement the accurate analysis of RT MCE. The workstation can compute some hemodynamic parameters of myocardial microcirculation, e.g., myocardial blood flow, myocardial blood flow mean velocity, and myocardial blood volume. Our new methods involved in the quantitative analysis of RT MCE are summarized as follows. 1) A novel orthogonal array optimization (OAO) technique was proposed and used to estimate the unknown parameters of the nonlinear model to guarantee numerical stability. 2) Brox's coarse-to-fine warping optical flow technique was employed to automatically track the region of interest located inside the myocardial area to ensure the accuracy of the quantitative analysis. Finally, we illustrate some examples of clinical studies to indicate the effectiveness of the system and the reliability of the methods.<br><br>
Development Of The Chinese Language Paediatric Daily Occupation Scale In Taiwan. Source: Occupational Therapy International
February 1st, 2010 PMID: 19626581 Guang Yao
The aim of this study was to describe the development of the paediatric daily occupation scale (PDOS) that was validated with Taiwanese children aged from birth to 72 months. Item-scale correlation coefficient was also used to select items. The psychometric properties of PDOS were examined based on the results of 957 children who participated in the study. The Chinese child development inventory (CCDI) was used as a standard to examine the concurrent validity of PDOS on two different samples. The PDOS, completed by parents, contains 340 items with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.99), test-retest reliability (r = 0.99) and concurrent validity (r = 0.88 between PDOS and CCDI). The sensitivity of PDOS (83%) in detecting children with developmental problems was much higher than CCDI (33%). Because the PDOS is developed and examined on children from greater Taipei area, when using the PDOS with children from different socio-cultural environments, the results need to be interpreted cautiously. Further research of the PDOS to justify its use as a screening tool for early detecting of children with developmental problems is suggested.<br><br>
Epigenetic Silencing Of Wif 1 In Hepatocellular Carcinomas. Source: Journal Of Cancer Research And Clinical Oncology
January 30th, 2010 PMID: 20119713 Guang Yao
PURPOSE:<br>To examine the expression profile and promoter methylation status of WIF-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identify the possible relationship between the WIF-1 expression pattern and promoter methylation status.<br><br>METHODS:<br>Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect mRNA level of WIF-1 in 4 HCC cell lines, 15 paired HCC clinical samples and 3 normal liver tissues. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite DNA sequencing were used in methylation analysis. In vitro assays for HCC cells, colony formation and cell proliferation assay were carried out to observe the effect of WIF-1 on cell growth; TOP-flash luciferase analysis was employed to determine its role in the Wnt pathway.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed the extensive low expression of WIF-1 mRNA in HCC, and this down-regulation was generally dependent on the degree of methylation at its promoter region. In vitro assays indicated WIF-1 can inhibit cell growth by blocking Wnt signaling in HCC cells.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>WIF-1 silencing as a result of its promoter hypermethylation may be a frequent event in HCC.<br><br>
Micro Rna 224 Is Involved In Transforming Growth Factor Beta Mediated Mouse Granulosa Cell Proliferation And Granulosa Cell Function By Targeting Smad4. Source: Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
January 29th, 2010 PMID: 20118412 Guang Yao
Many members of the TGF-beta superfamily are indicated to play important roles in ovarian follicular development, such as affecting granulosa cell function and oocyte maturation. Abnormalities associated with TGF-beta1 signaling transduction could result in female infertility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as small noncoding RNAs, were recently found to regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in TGF-beta-mediated granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell function. In this study, the miRNA expression profiling was identified from TGF-beta1-treated mouse preantral granulosa cells (GCs), and three miRNAs were found to be significantly up-regulated and 13 miRNAs were down-regulated. Among up-regulated miRNAs, miR-224 was the second most significantly elevated miRNA. This up-regulation was attenuated by treatment of GCs with SB431542 (an inhibitor of TGFbeta superfamily type I receptors, thus blocking phosphorylation of the downstream effectors Smad2/3), indicating that miR-224 expression was regulated by TGF-beta1/Smads pathway. The ectopic expression of miR-224 can enhance TGF-beta1-induced GC proliferation through targeting Smad4. Inhibition of endogenous miR-224 partially suppressed GC proliferation induced by TGF-beta1. In addition, both miR-224 and TGF-beta1 can promote estradiol release from GC, at least in part, through increasing CYP19A1 mRNA levels. This is the first demonstration that miRNAs can control reproductive functions resulting in promoting TGF-beta1-induced GC proliferation and ovarian estrogen release. Such miRNA-mediated effects could be potentially used for regulation of reproductive processes or for treatment of reproductive disorders.<br><br>
Azole Based Inhibitors Of Akt/Pkb For The Treatment Of Cancer. Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
January 21st, 2010 PMID: 20137943 Guang Yao
Through a combination of screening and structure-based rational design, we have discovered a series of N(1)-(5-(heterocyclyl)-thiazol-2-yl)-3-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1,2-propanediamines that were developed into potent ATP competitive inhibitors of AKT. Studies of linker strand-binding adenine isosteres identified SAR trends in potency and selectivity that were consistent with binding interactions observed in structures of the inhibitors bound to AKT1 and to the counter-screening target PKA. One compound was shown to have acceptable pharmacokinetic properties and to be a potent inhibitor of AKT signaling and of in vivo xenograft tumor growth in a preclinical model of glioblastoma.<br><br>
2 Aminothiadiazole Inhibitors Of Akt1 As Potential Cancer Therapeutics. Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
January 20th, 2010 PMID: 20137932 Guang Yao
A series of 2-aminothiadiazole of inhibitors of AKT1 is described. SAR relationships are discussed, along with selectivity for protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Moderate selectivity observed in several compounds for AKT1 versus PKA is rationalized by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Key compounds showed activity in cellular assays measuring phosphorylation of two AKT substrates, PRAS40 and FKHRL1. Compound 30 was advanced to a mouse liver PD assay, where it showed dose-dependent inhibition of AKT activity, as measured by the inhibition of phospho-PRAS40.<br><br>
[Results Of 3 Years Of Continuous Entecavir Treatment In Nucleos(T)Ide Naive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients]. Source: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi = Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi = Chinese Journal Of Hepatology
December 29th, 2009 PMID: 20038326 Guang Yao
OBJECTIVE:<br>To evaluate the virological, serological and biochemical outcomes of 3 years of entecavir (ETV) treatment in nucleoside-naive chronic hepatitis B patients.<br><br>METHODS:<br>This study was divided into two stages: Patients receiving either ETV 0.5 mg/d (n = 258) or lamivudine (LAM) 100 mg/d (n = 261) entered the initial 96-week randomized, double blind, controlled efficacy study. Patients not achieving a consolidated response (HBV DNA less than 0.7 MEq/ml, ALT less than 1.25 times*ULN, and if HBeAg-positive at baseline, loss of HBeAg for >or= 24 weeks), or those experienced viral breakthrough or relapse, entered a 48-week entecavir rollover study.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>96 weeks after the treatment, 79% of ETV treated and 46% of LAM treated patients had HBV DNA less than 300 copies/ml (P < 0.0001), 96% of ETV treated and 92% of LAM treated patients had normalized ALT (P = 0.06). 21% of ETV treated and 23% of LAM treated patients achieved HBeAg seroconversion. Among the 160 patients received continuous ETV for 144 weeks, 89% had undetectable serum HBV DNA, 86% showed ALT normalization, and 27% achieved HBeAg seroconversion. ETV resistance was rare: only 3 patients showed ETV resistance 96 weeks after the treatment, and additional 2 patients developed ETV resistance during the following 48 weeks, genotyping indicated the ETV resistance was caused by gene mutation. Adverse event rates in ETV-treated patients were similar to those in LAM-treated patients, but fewer ALT flares were observed in ETV-treated patients.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>This study demonstrates that ETV treatment results in long-term HBV suppression and ALT normalization in Chinese CHB patients, and is associated with low rate of drug resistance.<br><br>
Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 And Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Genotypes, Alcohol Drinking And The Risk For Esophageal Cancer In A Chinese Population. Source: Journal Of Human Genetics
December 11th, 2009 PMID: 20010786 Guang Yao
To investigate the relationship among alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genetic polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and the susceptibility to esophageal cancer in a Chinese population, we conducted a case-control study with 221 cases and 191 population-based controls in the Taixing city of Jiangsu Province of China. ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes were examined using PCR and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Alcohol drinkers with the ALDH2 A allele showed a significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer compared with drinkers with the ALDH2 G/G genotype (odds ratio (OR)=3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-5.78) or nondrinkers with any genotype (OR=3.05, 95% CI: 1.49-6.25). Drinkers with the ALDH2 A allele and a cumulative amount of alcohol consumption > or =2.5 (kg * years) were at a significantly higher risk of developing esophageal cancer (OR=11.93, 95% CI: 3.17-44.90) compared with individuals with ALDH2 G/G genotypes and a cumulative amount of alcohol consumption <2.5 (kg * years). A dose-dependent positive result was found between cumulative amount of alcohol consumption and risk of esophageal cancer in individuals carrying the ALDH2 A allele (P=0.023) and the homozygous ALDH2 G allele (P=0.047). Compared with individuals carrying both ALDH2 G/G and ADH2 A/A alleles and with a cumulative amount of alcohol consumption <2.5 (kg * years), drinkers carrying both ALDH2 A and ADH2 G alleles and with a cumulative amount of alcohol consumption > or =2.5 (kg * years) showed a significantly elevated risk of esophageal cancer (OR=53.15, 95% CI: 4.24-666.84). This result suggests that to help lower their risk for esophageal cancer, persons carrying the ALDH2 A allele should be encouraged to reduce their consumption of alcoholic beverages.<br><br>
Re: Effect Of Carvedilol On Plasma Adiponectin Concentration In Patients With Chronic Heart Failure. Source: Circulation Journal : Official Journal Of The Japanese Circulation Society
November 26th, 2009 PMID: 19940373 Guang Yao
Reformatted Computed Tomographic Evaluation Of The Thoracic Pedicle In A Chinese Population For The Surgical Application Of Transpedicular Screw Placement. Source: Surgical And Radiologic Anatomy : Sra
November 17th, 2009 PMID: 19921090 Guang Yao
PURPOSE:<br>To study the transverse thoracic pedicle diameter of a Chinese population and to determine the feasibility and safety of transpedicular screw fixation.<br><br>METHODS:<br>The authors studied the transverse pedicle diameter of the T1-T12 of the thoracic spine in a Chinese population using reformatted computed tomography. The data were compared with Caucasians and other Asians.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>The mean outer pedicle widths of the thoracic spine from T1 to T12 were 8.43, 6.65, 5.20, 4.44, 4.50, 4.87, 5.04, 5.32, 5.66, 6.65, 8.08 and 8.27 mm in males and 7.91, 6.03, 4.55, 3.91, 4.05, 4.31, 4.39, 4.60, 5.13, 5.67, 7.21 and 7.50 mm in females, respectively. Female patients have smaller dimensions compared with male patients. A significant percentage of patients have an outer pedicle width of less than 4.5 mm from T3 to T8, which is not suitable for transpedicular screw fixation with a 3.5 mm screw.<br><br>CONCLUSIONS:<br>The results of this study suggest that transpedicular screw fixation may not be suitable for the mid-thoracic regions in most Chinese females and that modified pedicle screw techniques or modified type of fixation is required in these patients. CT evaluation is a must before this procedure is performed.<br><br>
Determination Of Cadmium With A Sequential Injection Lab On Valve By Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using A Nafion Coated Bismuth Film Electrode. Source: Talanta
November 4th, 2009 PMID: 20152439 Guang Yao
This work exploited a sequential injection lab-on-valve (LOV) system for the determination of cadmium by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). A miniaturized electrochemical flow cell (EFC) was fabricated in LOV, in which a nafion coated bismuth film electrode was used as working electrode. The cadmium was electrodeposited on the electrode surface in bismuth solution, and measured with the subsequential stripping scan. Under optimal conditions, the proposed system responded linearly to cadmium concentrations in a range 2.0-100.0 microg L(-1). The detection limit of this method was found to be 0.88 microg L(-1). By loading a sample volume of 800 microL, a sampling frequency of 22 determinations h(-1) was achieved. The repeatability expressed as relative standard derivation (R.S.D.) was 3.65% for 20 microg L(-1) cadmium (n=11). The established method was applied to analysis of trace cadmium in environmental water samples and the spiked recoveries were satisfactory.<br><br>
Phenotype And Functions Of Spleen Dendritic Cells In Rick Knockout Mice. Source: International Immunopharmacology
October 20th, 2009 PMID: 19853061 Guang Yao
RICK (receptor-interacting caspase-like apoptosis-regulatory kinase), a protein kinase, promotes nuclear factor kappa B and caspase activation. Herein, in order to further learn the immune role of RICK, its gene in mice was knocked out. Then the phenotype, cytokine, endocytosis and stimulatory capacity of spleen dendritic cells (SDCs) from RICK(-) (knockout) and RICK(+) (wild type) mice were analyzed. Our results showed that the levels of I-Ad, CD11b, CD80 on SDCs from RICK(-) mice were higher while the levels of CD8alpha, CD40, CD45R were lower compared with those from RICK(+) mice; The intracellular levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha in SDCs from RICK(-) mice were higher than those from RICK(+) mice; The endocytosis and stimulatory capacities of SDCs from RICK(-) mice were higher and lower than those from RICK(+) mice respectively. These data suggested that RICK had a profound influence on the maturation and functions of murine SDCs and subsequently regulated the organ immune responses.<br><br>
Relevant Risk Factors Affecting Time Of Ventilation During Early Postoperative Period After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation. Source: Journal Of Critical Care
September 24th, 2009 PMID: 19781907 Guang Yao
PURPOSE:<br>The aim of this study is to examine the relevant factors affecting the duration of mechanical ventilation after orthotopic liver transplantation.<br><br>MATERIALS AND METHODS:<br>The 96 patients who underwent liver transplantation were divided into 2 groups according to whether or not the duration of mechanical ventilation after operation was longer than 24 hours. Nineteen variables, including clinical and experimental variables, were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and chi(2) test for discrete variables. The variables with significance (P < .05) were then analyzed with stepwise logistic regression.<br><br>RESULTS:<br>Nine continuous preoperative clinical and experimental variables, including preoperative Child-Pugh stage, time of operation, volume of intraoperative liquid transfusion, volume of intraoperative blood loss, volume of intraoperative blood transfusion, volume of intraoperative urine, time of intraoperative hypotension, postoperative renal failure, and postoperative pulmonary edema revealed significant differences between the 2 groups. Stepwise logistic regression analysis for 9 variables indicated that volume of intraoperative blood loss, volume of intraoperative urine, and postoperative renal failure are relevant independent risk factors.<br><br>CONCLUSION:<br>The relevant risks affecting the time of ventilation in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation are multiple. The volume of intraoperative blood loss, volume of intraoperative urine, and postoperative renal failure are independent risk factors.<br><br>
Imaging Optical Diffuse Reflectance In Beef Muscles For Tenderness Prediction. Source: Meat Science
September 22nd, 2009 PMID: 20374804 Guang Yao
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of a novel optical reflectance imaging method to predict beef tenderness. Two-dimensional (2D) optical reflectance in beef muscles induced by a point incident light was acquired. A set of five parameters were extracted from each reflectance image to describe quantitatively the reflectance profiles. Two parameters, q and B, were derived by numerically fitting the equi-intensity contours of the reflectance pattern. Two spatial gradients were calculated along the directions parallel and perpendicular to muscle fibers and total scattering intensity was obtained by excluding the specular reflectance. This method was applied to analyze 2D images of optical diffuse reflectance in 336 beef samples obtained from 14 steers in which large variations in tenderness were generated by altering animal genetics, suspension method and aging time as well as utilizing muscles varying in their inherent tenderness. Tenderness was evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The effects of animal breed, muscle, types of suspension, and aging were investigated and results indicate that the scattering intensity measured at 1-d was correlated (R(2)=0.50 at lambda=720 nm) with 10-d WBSF in M. longissimus dorsi muscles; and the q parameters measured at 1-d was correlated (R(2)=0.46 at lambda=720 nm) with 10-d WBSF in M. psoas major muscles. These results show analyzing 2D reflectance images of meat surfaces provides valuable information regarding the physical characteristics of meat that are responsible for beef tenderness.<br><br>
Cloning, Characterization, And Antifungal Activity Of An Endo 1,3 Beta D: Glucanase From Streptomyces Sp. S27. Source: Applied Microbiology And Biotechnology
August 21st, 2009 PMID: 19697016 Guang Yao
An endo-1,3-beta-D: -glucanase gene, designated as bglS27, was cloned from Streptomyces sp. S27 and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The full-length gene contains 1,362 bp and encodes a protein of 453 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42.7 kDa. The encoded protein comprises a catalytic module of glycosyl hydrolase family 16, a short glycine linker region, and a family 13 carbohydrate-binding module. The purified recombinant enzyme (BglS27) showed optimal activity at 65 degrees C and pH 5.5 and preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of glucans with a beta-1,3-linkage using an endolytic mode of action. The specific activity and K(m) value of BglS27 for laminarin were 236.0 U mg(-1) and 1.89 mg ml(-1), respectively. In antifungal assay, BglS27 had the ability to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonic solani and Fusarium oxysporum and some mycotoxin-producing fungi Fusarium crookwellense and Paecilomyces variotii. These favorable properties make BglS27 a good candidate for utilization in biotechnological applications such as plant protection, feed, and food preservation.<br><br>
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